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Electric Power Distribution Automation Protection And Control


New methods for automation and intelligent systems applications, new trends in telecommunications, and a recent focus on renewable energy are reshaping the educational landscape of today's power engineer. Providing a modern and practical vehicle to help students navigate this dynamic terrain, Electric Power Distribution, Automation, Protection, and Control infuses new directions in computation, automation, and control into classical topics in electric power distribution.Ideal for a one-semester course for senior undergraduates or first-year graduate students, this text works systematically through basic distribution principles, renewable energy sources, computational tools and techniques, reliability, maintenance, distribution automation, and telecommunications. Numerous examples, problems, and case studies offer practical insight into the concepts and help build a working knowledge of protection schemes, fault analysis and synthesis, reliability analysis, intelligent automation systems, distribution management systems, and distribution system communications. The author details different renewable energy sources and teaches students how to evaluate them in terms of size, cost, and performance.Guided firmly by the author's wealth of industrial and academic experience, your students will learn the tools and techniques used to design, build, and operate future generations of distribution systems with unparalleled efficiency, robustness, and sustainability.




electric power distribution automation protection and control



The handbook is targeted for power distribution applications following IEC guidelines and practices, even though many of the distribution automation principles can also be applied in power distribution applications based on ANSI guidelines.


Protection & Controls (P&C) engineering is a division of electrical power engineering that deals with the protection of electric power systems for power generation, transmission, and distribution. P&C engineering and design is the art of protecting the power grid against abnormal power system conditions while at the same time initiating certain corrective actions. P&C involves protecting large and expensive power equipment, such as:


Similar to electromechanical relays, the IEDs sense electrical faults from current transformers and potential or voltage transformers while initiating power circuit breakers to open or trip in order to clear and isolate faults on generators, transmission lines, transformers, and electrical bus, including failed power circuit breakers. This art of design and coordination of clearing electrical faults is extremely important in order to protect expensive equipment, since standing faults can permanently damage power systems. For example, replacing a failed high-voltage (HV) transformer today could cost north of $500,000 or over $1 million, including design and construction costs. It could cost more, if not double, as large electrical fires grow, thereby, causing more damage to other power equipment.


Power utilities, with the use of IEDs and intelligent P&C designs, are implementing more automation to improve productivity and efficiency. As a result, there is a reduction in maintenance staff by using less power technicians and operators due to relying more heavily on microprocessor-based protection and controls equipment. IEDs continue to help power utility operators and technicians utilize more real-time data in order to better operate, control, manage, monitor and test their power grid. Ultimately, the IEDs converge into a smarter and more automated grid, controlled mostly by computerized systems performing P&C functions. Newer P&C designs, with the help of IEDs, provide several benefits and critical functions as shown below:


As IEDs contribute major benefits, security risks are also of great concern. As cyber threats to power utilities continue to be a growing concern, cybersecurity protection for P&C devices must evolve into more robust and more secure designs. Designing P&C systems with security in the beginning is more important than trying to add security to an existing P&C system. Preventing unwanted actors or hackers from accessing power protection systems and IEDs should be a top priority for utilities in order to uphold their power grid reliability and resiliency.


At 3 Phase Associates, we look forward to helping you upgrade your existing T&D power systems to more advanced and secure protection systems. We can help you transform your power grid and control systems into a more secure and smarter grid, as it relates to physical/cybersecurity, P&C, IEDs, SCADA, telecommunications, etc.


Power distribution systems were designed to be simple and dependable because of the immense scale, circuit miles, and capital investment necessary to initially construct them. As the distribution system is modernized in conjunction with increased levels of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), it is important to maintain safe and dependable operation while designing an inherently more complex system. With increasing electricity supply coming from the DERs, distribution circuits will have a larger role in overall system reliability. The present grid was not designed to rely on generation at the distribution side. Therefore, minimizing the effect of power supply interruption has dual effects in ensuring that the customers are served, and that the DERs continue to generate and support the system.


In addition to the overcurrent protection, modern switching devices with reclosing capabilities can improve reliability. Reclosing is the ability to disengage from a central generation source to interrupt a fault, then after a short delay, close automatically to re-energize the power line. The power system faults such as tree branches contacting power lines, are temporary in nature, which means that the disturbance goes away after some time (i.e., the limb falls off the power lines). Devices with reclosing capability generally wait a designated period of time before closing, and it is this delay that allows the disturbance to be removed so that power can be restored to customers upon reclosing. In other instances, some types of advanced devices are intelligent enough to examine the line in advance to see if the problem still persists. In case the problem has not been resolved, such devices prevent the re-initiation of the problem, therefore, avoiding further equipment damage and mitigating issues that would otherwise impact the grid.


By addressing the challenges associated with DER and system reliability in general, customers and utilities will see benefits in reliability and operational flexibility. As the power system evolves to integrate more renewable energy generation, distribution system reliability becomes even more important as it is vital not only to provide customers with fewer power interruptions but also to keep an increasing portion of generation connected.


These types of circuit upgrades are essential for grid modernization as these new smart devices provide more protection and control to the localized parts of the circuit and therefore, help in increasing the system reliability. This means that the existing recloser at the substation, R1 should be replaced with a new intelligent recloser and another new recloser, R2, should be installed at the circuit midpoint to achieve 25% improvement in feeder reliability. Lateral reclosers may be deployed depending upon the requirements to solve some specific reliability problems, or in order to help in routine maintenance of the lateral fuses.


In this article, we looked deeper into one of the many benefits from the installation of intelligent distribution switches, that is, system reliability improvement with the help of an example case study. The payback period of the cost involved in installing these switches is very short; only a few months. Such advanced intelligent distribution circuit switches have other several applications and benefits that can be leveraged in multiple ways. These switches can be utilized as monitoring devices that can provide near real time measurements of the system parameters. These monitored quantities can then be utilized by Distribution Management System (DMS) algorithms. Such monitored quantities provide better visibility to the distribution system. Improved visibility aids operators to perform control and stability actions more effectively. The applications of such switches support distribution system operational flexibility through distribution feeder reconfiguration, which in turn, has several other benefits such as system loss reduction, load balancing, voltage profile improvement, in addition to the reliability improvement that is presented here.


All of these benefits fit very well into the overall modern grid framework in obtaining advanced distribution system monitoring, protection, and control capabilities because of which the modern distribution grid will be well-equipped to handle the larger penetration of DERs that are required to fulfill the ever increasing electricity demand.


Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL) designs, manufactures, and supports products and services ranging from generator and transmission protection to distribution automation and control systems. Founded in 1982 by Edmund O. Schweitzer III, SEL shipped the world's first digital protective relay.[1] Presently, the company designs and manufactures embedded system products for protecting, monitoring, control, and metering of electric power systems.


SEL designs, manufactures and supports products for protection, monitoring, control, automation, and metering of electric power systems, ranging from comprehensive generator and transmission protection to distribution automation and control systems.[3]


Examples of distribution automation tools include FLISR software, Volt/VAR management software, smart sensors and smart sensor software, automatic source transfer controls, capacitor bank controls, recloser controls, voltage regulator controls and automated switchgear controls. 350c69d7ab


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